Electrodes For Back Pain And Its Effects

Electrodes For Back Pain And Its Effects-Back pain is so excruciating. If it’s been stricken, all activities can be halted. Many people who have long been taking medication but the pain still came back. Therefore, patients looking for other therapies, one of which is still in the research are the treatment by stimulating the nerves to reduce chronic back pain. The recommended method is Transcutaneous Electrical Neurostimulation (TENS), in which the electric light pulses sent to the nerves to block the pain signals.
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This elektroanalgesia technique has been known since 2500 BC in Egypt, where they have been using electric fish for treating certain types of the disease. In 46 BC, a Roman physician Scribonius Largus documenting the use of the named elektroanalgesia. Elektroanalgesia is experiencing an increase in popularity along with the development of electrostatic generator diabad 18 and suffered a setback in the 19th and early 20th century. TENS started again in 1965 by Melzack and Wall with physiological reasons posited that rational about the effect elektroanalgesia. They mnyatakan that the delivery of the signal transmission of pain can be diinhibisi with the peripheral afferent nerves in the activity (large diameter) or through activities on jaras inhibition of pain that descend from the brain. High frequency electrical stimulation in perkutaneus is used to enable the peripheral afferent nerves are large in diameter and this stimulation can relieve chronic pain in patients. Shealy, Martiner and Reswick found that stimulation of the kolumna dorsalis which forms the Central transmission of jaras peripheral nerves are large in diameter can also relieve the pain.

TENS is one of electroanalgesia non-invasive technique that has been used widely in place of practice physiotherapists, nurses and midwives. TENS electrical flow involves weak through electrodes taped to the skin’s surface. The electrodes are placed in some places at body, then the current flowed through the cable with a frequency and intensity are adjusted to obtain optimal effect during and after stimulation.

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The Mechanism Of Analgesia It Has TENS

The working mechanism of TENS in pain allegedly is through:

1. Inhibition of presynaptic on the cornu dorsal Medulla spinalis.

2. Controlling pain in endorphin through endogenous, enkhepalin and dynorphin.

3. direct inhibition of nerve fibers is abnormally excited.

4. The restoration of the afferent input.

Research in the lab results showed that electrical stimulation by TENS pain through reducing barriers to nosiseptif at a rate of presinaptik on the dorsal part of the kornu. So as inhibit transmission to Central. Electrical stimulation of low threshold actif on skin nerve fibers bermyelin. Afferent input from these fibers inhibits the propagation of nosiseptif brought by the small wire-wire C is not bermyelin by inhibiting the transmission along nerve fibers into the target cells (T-cells) are found in the substantia gelatinosa dorsal cornu.

The mechanism of analgesia it has generated by TENS can be explained by the theory of the control gate (Gate Control Theory) by Melzack and Wall. This theory explains that nerve fibers with a small diameter that carry the pain stimulus is going through the same door with wire, which has a larger diameter which brings impul raba (mekanoreseptor), if both of these are nerve fibers together through the door the same, then a larger wire will inhibit the impulse from the fiber groom. The gate is usually closed, blocking the constant transmission of nosiseptif via the axons of the peripheral cells of C to T-cells. If the peripheral pain stimuli arise, the information carried by the C fibers reach cell-T and the gate will open, causing the Central transmission to the Thalamus and cortex where impulse would be interpreted as pain. TENS plays a role in the mechanism covered by inhibiting nosiseptif wire, Gate C by giving impulses on the myelin fibers.

The low-frequency TENS works primarily by producing the chemical compound endogens and opioid effect can diminish or disappear with the awarding of the opioid receptor antagonists. b endorphins will increase its concentration in the spinal fluid flow and after use of the TENS either high or low frequency. This will compound inhibits the medulla spinalis in pain signals. The chemical compound into 2 issued the order in response to central nervous TENS are opioids endogens that inhibits the transmission of pain in the substantial gelatinosa in the medulla spinalis.

The techniques and tools of TENS

TENS uses a small electric tool to conduct electrical impulses to the skin. A TENS unit is comprised of one power plant electrical signal, battery danelektroda. Commonly used stimulation parameters are:

Amplitude: low intensity, comfortable level and above the threshold. The extent of the pulse (duration): 10 â € “1000 micro seconds. Pulse rate (frequency): 80 â € “100 impulses per second (Hz), 0.5 ∔ 10 Hz if the intensity is set to high.

At the time wore it the patient asked to try various frequency and intensity to get the best pain control for the individual concerned. The position of electrodes mounted on the area that hurts (can also be in other areas such as acupuncture points, trigger point, nerve skin) to get a better result comparison.

There are three options for TENS therapy methods, namely:

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1. Conventional TENS

Conventional TENS using high frequency (40-150 Hz) and low intensity, current arrangements between 10-30 mA, short duration (up to 50 microsecond). The onset of analgesia it has in this method are being. Pain is gone when the appliance is switched on and is usually back again when the appliance is turned off. Each day the patient put an electrode during the day, the stimulus is given with an interval of 30 minutes. In individuals who respond to goodwill, it brings up some analgesic effects long after the use of the tool is stopped.

2. Acupuncture Like TENS (AL-TENS)

In this method is used with low-frequency stimulus started with 1-10 Hz, high intensity, but still can be tolerated. This method is more effective than conventional TENS, but there are some patients who feel less comfortable. This method is usually used for patients who are not a response to conventional TENS.

3. Intense TENS

Using stimulus with high intensity and high frequency. Cetusan flow released 1-2 Hz, the frequency of each 100 Hz. No special advantages of this method compared to conventional TENS.

TENS is used to selectively activate afferent nerve AÎ ² which causes inhibition of transmission nociceptin in the medulla spinalis. It states that the mechanism of an analgesic profile of work and TENS and AL-TENS-intense differs from conventional TENS and those methods are more useful than conventional TENS, because conventional TENS only give a slight advantage. There is some research that reported that there is evidence that it is not so powerful that support the use of TENS in pain management post operations and labor pain. However, these findings have been called into question because in contrast with clinical experience and it would be very inappropriate to refuse the use of TENS on acute pain until there is evidence or reasons that explain the difference between clinical experience with clinical research in further exploration. A systematic review showed more positive results regarding the use of TENS in chronic pain. So a better research is needed to determine the difference in effectiveness between various types of TENS, and to compare the cost-effectiveness (cost-effectiveness) TENS conventional analgesic intervention and other electrotherapy

Indications and Contraindications TENS

TENS has been used for the type and condition of the pain that varies as low back pain (LBP), myofascial pain and arthritis, nerve pain is mediated by sympathetic dystrophy, incontinence, pain labor, neurogenic pain, visceral pain and pain post-surgery. Back pain is so excruciating. If it’s been stricken, all activities can be halted. Many people who have long been taking medication but the pain still came back. Therefore, patients looking for other therapies, one of which is still in the research are the treatment by stimulating the nerves to reduce chronic back pain. The recommended method is Transcutaneous Electrical Neurostimulation (TENS), in which the electric light pulses sent to the nerves to block the pain signals.

This elektroanalgesia technique has been known since 2500 BC in Egypt, where they have been using electric fish for treating certain types of the disease. In 46 BC, a Roman physician Scribonius Largus documenting the use of the named elektroanalgesia. Elektroanalgesia is experiencing an increase in popularity along with the development of electrostatic generator diabad 18 and suffered a setback in the 19th and early 20th century. TENS started again in 1965 by Melzack and Wall with physiological reasons posited that rational about the effect elektroanalgesia. They mnyatakan that the delivery of the signal transmission of pain can be diinhibisi with the peripheral afferent nerves in the activity (large diameter) or through activities on jaras inhibition of pain that descend from the brain. High frequency electrical stimulation in perkutaneus is used to enable the peripheral afferent nerves are large in diameter and this stimulation can relieve chronic pain in patients. Shealy, Martiner and Reswick found that stimulation of the kolumna dorsalis which forms the Central transmission of jaras peripheral nerves are large in diameter can also relieve the pain.

TENS is one of elektroanalgesia non-invasive technique that has been used widely in place of practice physiotherapists, nurses and midwives. TENS electrical flow involves weak through electrodes taped on the skin’s surface. The electrodes are placed in some places ditubuh, then the current flowed through the cable with a frequency and intensity are adjusted to obtain optimal effect during and after stimulation.

TENS has been used for the type and condition of the pain that varies as low back pain (LBP), myofascial pain and arthritis, nerve pain is mediated by sympathetic dystrophy, incontinence, pain perssalinan, neurogenik pain, visceral pain and pain post surgery.

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